Mild can be defined as electromagnetic radiation which has completely different frequencies and wavelength. The spectrum that can be picked up by the retina of a human eye is named visible mild [1]. Supplies by means of which mild can refracted, reflected, transmitted, dispersed, polarized, detected and transformed are referred to as optical supplies [2].

Optical Supplies

The number of optical materials has expanded recently. Previously, glass and different ceramic supplies have been the few supplies out there that offered one of the best refractive index values. If we look at glass specifically, the chemical structure of glass is formed by Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O) with low-vary association [3]. The atoms in glass are organized randomly, and because of this structure, glass is transparent (Fig.1) [2]. Conversely, metals have an organized construction and subsequently should not transparent. In glass, photons (the elementary particles that form the light) are in a position to move by means of glass with out interacting with any atom [2]. Due to this construction, it has low mechanical properties and high density (between 2.3 and 6.3 g/cm3) [1], which will be thought-about a disadvantage.

Fig. 1 Chemical structure of glass

Optically Clear Polymers

Some polymers have innate properties similar to glass, however they’ve low physical properties. Examples of some of these polymers include the thermoplastic materials Polycarbonate (Computer), and Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) that are processed utilizing injection molding; and Epoxy resins (EPI), thermoset supplies that are compression molded [4]. These thermoplastic and thermoset materials have benefits, including high quality surfaces reflecting the mold floor, they’re simply processed, and they can be found in a wide range of grades with a wide range of properties. There are disadvantages as properly, together with thermal stability − their thermal properties are low compared to glass [3].

Optical Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR)

Optically clear grades of LSR polymers provide advantages over both glass and thermoplastic and thermoset optical polymers. Optical silicone rubber has been round awhile, with the primary optically clear silicone rubber developed within the 1950s [5]. The chemical constructions of liquid silicone rubber and glass have elements in widespread. Like glass, LSR can also be formed by Si and O (Fig. 2), nonetheless the extra radicals in its structure is what makes silicone rubbers opaque or translucent by nature. Though common in some regards, the mechanical and bodily properties of Liquid Silicone Rubber are superior to glass and carbon-based mostly polymers [6]. In relation to hardness, LSRs can be as flexible as 5 Shore A, or as exhausting as glass (approximately 90 Shore A). Should you have almost any issues relating to exactly where as well as how to work with silicone mold (get redirected here), you can e-mail us in our own web site. Its density can be a plus, it ranges between 1.1 and 2.3 g/cm3, significantly lower than glass [7].

Thermal Performance

Most purposes specifying optical materials will likely be in high temperature environments. Because of LSR’s good thermal stability, optically clear Liquid Silicone Rubber performs effectively and maintains its transparency without lowering over time [7]. Thermoset epoxy resins for example don’t carry out effectively, their readability decreases and will flip black when subjected to 200°C for 200 hours. LSRs provide advantages over polycarbonates as nicely, the optical LSR material will maintain homogeneous mild distribution over a spread of wavelengths, whereas when polycarbonate is used at particular wavelengths, it would turn yellow [3].

Fig. 2 Chemical structure of silicone rubber [3]

Chemical Structure and Additives

Optical Liquid Silicone Rubber, without any additives and with different molecular weights, have been shown in materials literature to include Phenyl, Methyl and Trifluoropropyl teams in its chemical structure [8]. So how does one-part optical silicone rubber differ from different liquid silicone rubbers? During the synthesis, the polymer repeat unit is modified and creates a short-range structure similar to glass. The disadvantage of this modification is its clarity will decrease as a consequence of thermal aging, much like the carbon-based mostly polymers. Desk 1 presents the refractive index of those optical silicone rubbers in comparison with glass [3].

Desk 1. Refractive indexes of various silicone rubbers as compared with glass [3]

Although one-half optical silicone rubber can be utilized, optical silicones with two-half addition curing are more generally used and most popular. In two-half LSRs, the vulcanization is activated using a platinum catalyst [9]. Also, special silicone rubbers catalyzed utilizing 2,5-dimethyl-2, 5-di(t-butylperoxy) hexane is considered optimum due its absence of by-products [4]. To enhance the readability of silicone rubber, it is important to switch its chemical construction, usually using additives. The main goal of the additives is to change the refractive index until it is the same or very similar to glass’s refractive index. The mostly used additive is the silicon dioxide (silica) which has a rod-shape morphology and a median particle measurement of roughly 15 nm. Other than the primary objective being to improve the mechanical properties, this additive can even improve the optical properties as well [10]. The addition of further-positive silica or wet-process hydrophobic silica affects the morphology so it retains its clarity even at excessive temperatures, and in addition improves processing.

Optical Readability Measurement

The readability of a fabric will be evaluated utilizing different properties: percentage of light transmission, refractive index, percentage of haze (a measure of the diffused and transmitted gentle), Abbe number (measurement of the material’s light dispersion), and yellowness index, (calculated primarily based on shade modifications in the material caused by pure or synthetic radiation). In assessing the optical high quality of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR) vs. glass based on these metrics, optical LSRs are superior in all except haze and yellowness index, where glass has higher values. Overall, the optical properties of a modified optical LSR, are typically higher than Computer and PMMA polymers, and glass as well [3].


Optical Liquid Silicone Rubbers are more and more changing glass in lighting functions, particularly in bulbs. Glass utilized in these kind of functions, with high vitality consumption the excessive temperature on the glass surface is the primary trigger for the short life of the product [11]. In 1962, mild-emitting diode (LED) have been introduced. The LED is a two-lead semiconductor light supply that is activated when a voltage is applied that releases energy within the type of photons (mild). Using optical LSRs in these functions presents elevated product life, because of the material’s thermal stability even in high temperature even over an prolonged time period [1]. Figure three reveals the comparison between the glass bulb and the LED lightning system with a Liquid Silicone Rubber enclosure.

Figure 3. Glass mild bulb and optical silicone rubber LED bulb [3]

Other merchandise where silicone rubber can be used include white reflectors and diffusers used in lightning, digital or automotive applications. As a refractive or TIR (Total Inner Reflection) lens, with the appropriated design, the light loss throughout reflection is eliminated completely. Optical LSRs are also used successfully in imagery and scanning functions, in bar-code scanners, spectrometers and particle counters [3]. In medical functions, optical Liquid Silicone Rubber may be found in tubing, endoscopy elements, catheters and lenses. In new, emerging telecommunications fields, optical LSRs are utilized in microlens arrays, and diffractive optical elements; in electrical functions they are often present in solar assortment products and as fibers in photonics [8]. For photonics functions, ultraviolet (UV) light is used to cure the silicone rubber; the publicity of the material to an applicable wavelength permits the generation of waveguide’s patterns that can be used efficiently in lithography.

Along with functions for optical silicone rubber with visible spectrums of gentle, there are also functions in different ranges of mild. For instance, functions with UV-visible / Near Infrared range used for knowledge transmission [11]. Depending on the chemical composition of the grade and additives used, LSR wavelengths can range between 850 nm and 1300-1600 nm.

Processing Liquid Silicone Rubber

The processing of optical Liquid Silicone Rubber is also crucial for attaining desirable properties in the ultimate product. Similar to optical carbon-primarily based polymers, silicone rubbers will be injection molded, compression molded or solid [6]. LSR’s quick processing time, no materials waste because of the elimination of sprues and runners, and its initial low viscosity, allows for the production of tight tolerance advanced merchandise. As well as, wear on the machine, and silicone gadget mold components occurs at a really gradual fee, and discuss very low birefringence is generated which can be a problem for some optical functions. Through the cooling process (after processing), internal stresses aren’t created when processing LSR, even in thick walls, providing increased mechanical and dimensional stability in the long run products [13]. From the rheological perspective, optical Liquid Silicone Rubber’s inherent viscosity is unbiased of the shear charge, and is decrease in contrast to standard LSR, positively affecting the processing, for example the flow might be controlled and predicted simply. Determine four reveals the comparability in conduct between standard LSR and optical Liquid Silicone Rubber.

Determine 4. Comparability of conduct between normal and optical silicone rubber [14]

Although LSRs have many processing advantages, there are additionally some issues to take under consideration when processing. The primary consideration entails the composition of the material, as a result of most optical LSRs are comprised of two-elements, mixing is required. It is important that the fabric is homogenous and blended effectively earlier than processing [14]. Also variables equivalent to shrinkage, part geometry, and the surface end of the mold can negatively have an effect on the optical properties and needs to be addressed. As a consequence of its low viscosity, there is a tendency for flash to be generated within the product, for that cause, further design considerations are necessary to keep away from or minimize flashing.

LSR injection molders, for instance SIMTEC Silicone Elements, who are considered consultants in Liquid Silicone Rubber technology, make the most of their information, expertise, and superior manufacturing to optimize the manufacturing of high quality LSR, Two-Shot, and Multi-Shot LSR elements.



2. https://www.researchgate.internet/publication/279946258_Optical_Supplies


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